Alpha Fetoprotein ELISA Assay Test Kit
Alpha-fetoprotein Rapid Test
Afp Assay Kit For Cancer Prevention, AFP is a glycoprotein with a mol wt of ~65-70 kDa. It has approx. 4% carbohydrates. During fetal development, AFP is secreted at high levels and then drops to very low levels in adult life. AFP reappears in serum at high levels in malignant diseases of hepatocellular, testicular, nonseminomatosus origin, and occasionally other entodermal origin. AFP may be slightly elevated or persisted in patients with large hepatic metastases or viral hepatitis. AFP measurement is widely accepted as tumor marker and for monitoring the therapeutic effectiveness of hepatocellular and other cancer.
AFP concentration is also high in the amniotic fluid during early stages of pregnancy. AFP levels decline in the later part of the pregnancy. Elevated amniotic AFP levels are indicative of open neural tube defects (spina bifida or anencephaly) and in several fetal hemolytic diseases, omphlocele, esophageal artresia, congenital nephrosis, intrauterine death or fetal bleeding into the amniotic fluid. For diagnostic purpose, ultrasonography and acetylcholine esterase measurement should be performed in conjunction with AFP.
Causes of tumor markers:
A substance produced and released by tumor cells often exists in tumor cells or host body fluids in the form of metabolites such as antigens, enzymes and hormones, and can be identified or diagnosed according to its biochemical or immune characteristics.
What are tumor markers?
Because of the abnormal biochemistry and metabolism of tumor cells, substances that change qualitatively or quantitatively in the body fluids, excretions and tissues of tumor patients are tumor markers.
Cases :(1) 80%AFP>400ng/ml of primary liver cancer, nearly 20%AFP was normal.
2. Carcinoembryonic antigen.
Cases :(1) CEA elevation is mainly seen in colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine and cervical cancer, urinary tract cancer, etc., and other malignant tumors have positive rates to varying degrees.
3. Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125)
Cases :(1) serum CA125 of ovarian cancer increased, with a positive rate of 61.4%. The effective CA125 decreased. Recurrent CA125 increased before symptoms; CA125 is a good indicator of efficacy and recurrence.
4. Carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (ca15-3)
Cases :(1) ca15-3 increased in breast cancer patients, with a sensitivity of 60% in the early stage of breast cancer and 80% in the late stage of breast cancer.
5. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (ca19-9)
Example :(1) pancreatic cancer, cholecystic cancer, and bile duct ampullary cancer were significantly increased in ca19-9. In particular, the positive rate of advanced pancreatic cancer was up to 75%, which was an important auxiliary diagnostic indicator, but the early diagnosis was of little value.
6. Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (ca72-4)
Cases :(1) the positive rate of gastric cancer is 65-70%, with higher metastasis.
Tumor markers are substances that exist on some tumor cells or secreted and discharged into body fluids, which can be roughly divided into tumor cell secretions and tumor cell expressions. The former is the substance produced by tumor cells in the process of occurrence and development. The more vigorous the tumor growth is, the more abundant it is. On the contrary, the tumor growth is suppressed and its production is reduced. These substances are often glycoproteins, which can be detected and monitored by examining body fluids such as blood. Currently, commonly used cancer marker groups include lung cancer marker groups (CEA, cyfra21-1, NSE, etc.), gastrointestinal cancer marker groups (CEA, CA199, CA242, CA724, etc.), CA153(breast cancer, etc.), CA125(ovarian cancer, etc.), AFP(liver cancer, etc.), PSA(prostate cancer, etc.), HCG(choriocarcinoma, etc.).
The second type of "special marker", also known as "tumor cell expression", is often some special structural points on tumor cell membrane or intracellular structure, such as epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), CD20 receptor, etc. Their first characteristic is that they are mostly on the surface of tumor cells and few on the surface of normal cells. The second characteristic is that it can be specifically identified and combined by certain drugs, thus becoming the "target" for these drugs to track and strike. Once combined, these drugs activate the "death signal" inside tumor cells like a key inserted into a keyhole, killing the tumor and rarely damaging normal cells. It has been widely used in the treatment of lung cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma and other malignant tumors.
How to use
The specificity of AFP ELISA kit was determined by measuring interference from high concentrations of human albumin and human Vitamin D binding protein. No interference was detected.
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